perjantai 1. toukokuuta 2015

[HT] John Walton ja Adam

John Walton kirjoittaa hienosti (BioLogoksen sivuilta), teksti lähtee liikkeelle siitä, että meidän jakomme luonnolliseen ja yliluonnolliseen on 'nykyaikainen keksintö', ei Raamatun ajattelutapa

Is the text claiming that Adam was formed from dust by the very hand of God, while the rest of us are born from a woman after a nine-month gestation period? Many assume this is the case. But such a view implies that the text asserts a supernatural theory of human origins for which there is no natural explanation or process involved. Again, the text cannot be making such a distinction, because the Israelites did not think in terms of these competing categories.

Alternatively, I suggest that just as Adam is introduced to us as one formed from dust, so we understand that we are all formed from dust, designed to be mortal and frail (Ps. 103:14; 1 Cor. 15:47-48). The text is not trying to tell us how Adam is different, but to tell us how we are all the same. In Genesis we don’t learn that Adam’s creation was supernatural while the rest of us are born through a natural process. We learn that humankind from the very beginning was created with mortal bodies but that God was going to provide an antidote. I address more of the details of this interpretation in my book, The Lost World of Adam and Eve.

If the Bible does not insist that God bypassed scientifically describable processes in the material creation of human beings (since its authors and its intended audience had no such categories), it should not be used to rule out scientific explanations for material human origins (such as evolution). Both the Bible and theology agree that God is pervasively involved in his world no matter what level of scientifically describable cause and effect we can detect. So it is not inconsistent with the biblical text to suggest that God created human beings over a long period of time through processes
...
At the same time, every Christian should affirm that humans are not merely the result of scientifically describable processes. God has made us ontologically distinct beings, regardless of the material processes involved. We are more than dust; and we are more than any phylogenetic ancestor. Furthermore, this ontological uniqueness cannot be simplified to the imposition of a soul or to the assignment as God’s images. Unique human ontology can't be reduced to anthropological components because it concerns the fundamental nature of our being. We are more than what we are made of, and God is responsible for that.

http://biologos.org/blog/natural-and-supernatural-are-modern-terms-not-biblical-ones

Hannu Tiihonen

perjantai 23. tammikuuta 2015

[HT] Syntiinlankeemus

Erastus Salisbury Field - The Garden of Eden. Kuva Wikimedia

Ajattelen, että paratiisikertomuksen sanoma meille nykyajan ihmisille ei ole se, missä ja millä tavalla ihmiskunta on fyysisesti ilmaantunut maapallolle. Uskon että sanoma meille on sama kuin kirjoittajan pääpointti: Kertomus keskittyy syvimmiltään pohtimaan synnin tulemista ihmiskuntaan, ja mitä se saa aikaan.

Paratiisikertomuksen kirjoittaja on aivan ilmeisesti tuntenut nuolenpääkirjoituksia ja ehkä myös vastaavia suusanallisia perinteitä ja hän on niistä saanut 'lavasteita' kertomukselle. Varmaankin kirjoittaja piti ihmiskunnan alkukotina kaksoisvirtojen maan aluetta. Hän ajatteli ensimmäistä ihmistä, ensimmäistä rikkomusta Jumalaa vastaan, omia kokemuksiaan siitä mitä synti saa aikaan ym. ja oli luonnollisesti Israelin Jumalaan uskova henkilö.

Kirjoittaja lienee tuntenut kertomuksen tai useitakin, joissa kerrotaan ihmisen luomisesta savesta. Hän näyttäisi myös tunteneen noita Sumerille tyypillisiä kertomuksia, joissa kerrotaan asioiden 'kohtalon', 'tehtävän' määrittelystä jonkun jumalan toimesta - tähän viittaa eläinten nimeäminen. Hän varmastikin tunsi myös kertomuksia Dilmunista, Sumerin paratiisinomaisesta paikasta. Enki ja Ninhursag -kertomuksen sillä kohdalla, jossa naisjumalatar luodaan miesjumalan kylkiluusta, on melkein kiistämätön yhteys Eevan luomiseen Aadamin kylkiluusta. Dilmunin yhteydessä kerrotaan myös rikkauksista useammassa kuin yhdessä kertomuksessa. Tällainenkin oli kirjoittajalle tuttua.

Muitakin yksityiskohtia Raamatun kertomuksessa on, jotka liittyvät siihen, että kirjoittaja tunsi mesopotamian kerrontaperinnettä - vaikkemme voi tarkkaan tietää miten hän oli tiedot saanut. (Sivumennen sanoen, onhan mahdollista, että on useampi kuin yksi kirjoittaja ja kertomus on täydentynyt ensimmäisen version jälkeen)

Mutta kuten sanottu, kirjoittajan pointti on synnin tuleminen ihmiskuntaan ja sen seuraukset. Ihmisen ja Jumalan suhde särkyy. Viattomuus menetetään. Hyvän ja pahan tietäminen liittyy myös tähän asiaan oleellisesti. Tämän saman aiheen pohdinta on keskipisteessä myös kertomuksessa Kainista ja Aabelista. Herra sanoo Kainille: "Eikö niin: jos teet hyvin, voit kohottaa katseesi; mutta jos et hyvin tee, niin väijyy synti ovella, ja sen halu on sinuun, mutta hallitse sinä sitä!" Ja sitten vedenpaisumuskertomuksessa kerrotaan: "Mutta kun Herra näki, että ihmisten pahuus oli suuri maan päällä ja että kaikki heidän sydämensä aivoitukset ja ajatukset olivat kaiken aikaa ainoastaan pahat...". Siis synti ja sen seuraukset on paratiisikertomuksen  tärkein sisältö ja sama teema jatkuu seuraavissa kertomuksissa.

lauantai 10. tammikuuta 2015

[HT] Savitaulujen kertomaa

Mesopotamian alueen nuolenpääkirjoituksia koskevaa nettiaineistoa.  Linkkejä käännöksiin, tiivistelmiä, otteita Raamatun kannalta kiinnostavista kohdista  (vihreällä).

Otsikot ovat englanninkielisiä, koska niillä nimillä tekstit parhaiten tunnetaan.

Sumerinkieliset:

Eridu Genesis

... After An, Enlil, Enki and Ninḫursaĝa had fashioned the black-headed people, they also made animals multiply everywhere, and made herds of four-legged animals exist on the plains ...
... A flood will sweep over ... A decision that the seed of mankind is to be destroyed has been made. The verdict, the word of the divine assembly, cannot be revoked ...
... All the windstorms and gales arose together, and the flood swept over the ... After the flood had swept over the land, and waves and windstorms had rocked the huge boat for seven days and seven nights, Utu the sun god came out, illuminating heaven and earth. Zi-ud-sura could drill an opening in the huge boat and the hero Utu entered the huge boat with his rays. Zi-ud-sura the king prostrated himself before Utu. The king sacrificed oxen and offered innumerable sheep ...
... At that time, because of preserving the animals and the seed of mankind, they settled Zi-ud-sura the king in an overseas country, in the land Dilmun, where the sun rises ...
Wikipedia, Sumerian creation Myth
ETCSL, The Flood story, translation

Enki and Ninmah

This tale recounts the circumstances that led to the creation of people. The dissatisfaction of the gods over their hard labour results in the fashioning of people from clay instigated my Enki and carried out by Nammu, his mother, with the aid of Ninmah. Enki and Ninmah subsequently engage in a contest to see if Enki can find a function for seven disabled individuals that she has created. (Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament : Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible. John Walton)
In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created ...
... The gods were digging the canals and piling up the silt in Harali. The gods, dredging the clay, began complaining about this life ...
... My son, wake up from your bed! Please apply the skill deriving from your wisdom and create a substitute (?) for the gods so that they can be freed from their toil! ... [= Namman puhetta Enkille]
... he said to his mother Namma: "My mother, the creature you planned will really come into existence. Impose on him the work of carrying baskets. You should knead clay from the top of the abzu; the birth-goddesses (?) will nip off the clay and you shall bring the form into existence ..."
ETCSL, Enki and Ninmah, translation 

Enki and Ninhursag

... Pure is Dilmun land. Pure is Sumer ... Virginal is Dilmun land. Pristine is Dilmun land ...
... In Dilmun the raven was not yet cawing, the partridge not cackling. The lion did not slay, the wolf was not carrying off lambs, the dog had not been taught to make kids curl up, the pig had not learned that grain was to be eaten ...
... No eye-diseases said there: "I am the eye disease." No headache said there: "I am the headache." No old woman belonging to it said there: "I am an old woman." No old man belonging to it said there: "I am an old man." ...
... fresh waters shall run out of the ground for you from the standing vessels (?) on Ezen's (?) shore ... from the mouth of the waters running underground ... May your pools of salt water become pools of fresh water ... May the land of Tukric hand over to you gold from Harali, lapis lazuli and ... May the land of Meluha load precious desirable cornelian, mec wood of Magan and the best abba wood into large ships for you. May the land of Marhaci yield you precious stones, topazes  ..."
... Enki ... said to his minister Isimud: "I have not determined the destiny of these plants. What is this one? What is that one?" His minister Isimud had the answer for him. "My master, the 'tree' plant," he said to him, cut it off for him and Enki ate it. "My master, the 'honey' plant," he said to him, pulled it up for him and Enki ate it. "My master, the 'vegetable' plant," he said to him, cut it off for him and Enki ate it ... Enki determined the destiny of the plants, had them know it in their hearts. Ninhursaja cursed the name Enki: "Until his dying day, I will never look upon him with life-giving eye." ...
... But a fox was able to speak to Enlil: "If I bring Ninhursaja to you, what will be my reward?" Enlil answered the fox: "If you bring Ninhursaja to me, I shall erect two birch (?) trees for you in my city and you will be renowned"...
... "My brother, what part of you hurts you?" "The top of my head (ugu-dili) hurts me." She gave birth to Ab-u out of it. "My brother, what part of you hurts you?" "The locks of my hair (siki) hurt me." She gave birth to Ninsikila out of it. "My brother, what part of you hurts you?" "My nose (giri) hurts me." She gave birth to Ningiriutud out of it ... "My brother, what part of you hurts you?" "My ribs (ti) hurt me." She gave birth to Ninti out of it ...
ETCSL, Enki and Ninhursaja, translation
Wikipedia, Enki and Ninhursag and the Creation of Life and Sickness

Enki and the world order

... Enki, the king of the Abzu, justly praises himself in his majesty: "My father, the king of heaven and earth, made me famous in heaven and earth. My elder brother, the king of all the lands, gathered up all the divine powers and placed them in my hand ... He has placed in my hands the decreeing of fates in the 'Place where the sun rises'...
... Let the lands of Meluha, Magan and Dilmun look upon me, upon Enki. Let the Dilmun boats be loaded (?) with timber. Let the Magan boats be loaded sky-high. Let the magilum boats of Meluha transport gold and silver and bring them to Nibru for Enlil, king of all the lands." He presented animals to those who have no city, to those who have no houses, to the Martu nomads ...
ETCSL, Enki and the world order, translation
International World History Project, ENKI, a sumerian high god

Inanna and Enki

The myth Enki and Inanna tells the story of the young goddess of the É-anna [Inanna] temple of Uruk, who visits the senior god of Eridu, and is entertained by him in a feast. The seductive god plies her with beer, and the young goddess maintains her virtue, whilst Enki proceeds to get drunk. In generosity he gives her all the gifts of his 'Me', the gifts of civilized life. Next morning, with a hangover, he asks his servant Isimud for his Me, only to be informed that he has given them to Inanna. Upset at his actions, he sends Galla demons to recover them. Inanna escapes her pursuers and arrives safely back at the quay at Uruk. Enki realises that he has been tricked in his hubris and accepts a peace treaty forever with Uruk. Politically, this myth would seem to indicate events of an early period when political authority passed from Enki's city of Eridu to Inanna's city of Uruk.  (Wikipedia, Enki)
ETCSL, Inana and Enki, translation

Inanna's descent

ETCSL, Inana's descent to the nether world, translation
Wikipedia, Inanna's descent to the underworld

Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world

In those days ... when the heavens had been separated from the earth, when the earth had been delimited from the heavens, when the fame of mankind had been established, when An had taken the heavens for himself, when Enlil had taken the earth for himself, when the nether world had been given to Ereškigala as a gift ...
... At that time, there was a single tree, a single ḫalub tree, a single tree, growing on the bank of the pure Euphrates, being watered by the Euphrates ...
... At its roots, a snake immune to incantations made itself a nest. In its branches, the Anzud bird settled its young. In its trunk, the phantom maid built herself a dwelling, the maid who laughs with a joyful heart. But holy Inana cried ...
ETCSL, Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world, translation

Song of the Hoe/Pickaxe

Not only did the lord make the world appear in its correct form -- the lord who never changes the destinies which he determiness: Enlil, who will make the human seed of the Land come forth ... and not only did he hasten to separate heaven from earth, and hasten to separate earth from heaven ... He did this with the help of the hoe (al) -- and so daylight broke forth (aled) ...
ETCSL, The song of the hoe, translation
Wikipedia, Song of the hoe

Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta

... "On that day when there is no snake, when there is no scorpion, when there is no hyena, when there is no lion, when there is neither dog nor wolf, when there is thus neither fear nor trembling, man has no rival! At such a time, may the lands of Cubur and Hamazi, the many-tongued, and Sumer, the great mountain of the me of magnificence, and Akkad, the land possessing all that is befitting, and the Martu land, resting in security -- the whole universe, the well-guarded people -- may they all address Enlil together in a single language! ... Enki, the lord of abundance and of steadfast decisions, the wise and knowing lord of the Land, the expert of the gods, chosen for wisdom, the lord of Eridug, shall change the speech in their mouths, as many as he had placed there, and so the speech of mankind is truly one." ...
ETCSL, Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta, translation
Wikipedia, Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta

Sumerian King List

After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years ... and the kingship was taken to Curuppag. In Curuppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over. After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kic. In Kic, Jucur became king; he ruled for 1200 years. Kullassina-bel ruled for 960 years... 
ETCSL, The Sumerian King list, translation
Wikipedia, Sumerian King List 
Akkadinkieliset:

Atrahasis

When the gods were man they did forced labor, they bore drudgery. Great indeed was the drudgery of the gods, the forced labor was heavy, the misery too much ... he gods were digging watercourses, canals they opened, the life of the land ... The Igigi-gods dug the Tigris river and the Euphrates thereafter. Springs they opened from the depths ... They were complaining, denouncing, muttering down in the ditch ... Ea made ready to speak, and said to the gods, his brothers: "What calumny do we lay to their charge? Their forced labor was heavy, their misery too much! ... There is ... Belet-ili, the midwife, is present. Let her create, then, a human, a man, Let him bear the yoke! Let him bear the yoke! Let man assume the drudgery of the god." ... Nintu made ready to speak, and said to the great gods: "It is not for me to do it, the task is Enki's. He it is that cleanses all, let him provide me the clay so I can do the making." ... Let one god be slaughtered, then let the gods be cleansed by immerson. Let Nintu mix clay with his flesh and blood. Let that same god and man be thoroughly mixed in the clay ...
... Flee the house, build a boat, forsake possessions, and save life. The boat which you build... Roof her over like the depth, so that the sun shall not see inside her. Let her be roofed over fore and aft. The gear should be very strong, the pitch should be firm, and so give the boat strength. ... Sheep ... he choose and and brought on board. The birds flying in the heavens, the cattle ... the creatures of the steppe ... he brought on board ... his family was brought on board. ... The deluge belowed like a bull, The wind resounded like a screaming eagle. The darkness was dense, the sun was gone ... 
Livius, the Epic of Atrahasis
Wikipedia, Atra-Hasis

Gilgamesh

Ziusudra said to him, said to Gilgamesh: 'O Gilgamesh, I will disclose unto you a hidden thing. Yes, a secret of the gods will I tell unto you: You know the city Shuruppak, which lies upon the River Euphrates. That city was of great antiquity. And ancient were the gods who still lived within it. In their hearts they resolved to bring on the Great Flood
... [Arkkia rakennetaan] The child brought bitumen, the strong brough the rest of what was needed. On the fifth day I laid out the plan. The floor space was one iku.  Its sides were ten gar high, each edge of its square roof measured ten gar ... I caused all my family and kinsfolk to go aboard. The beasts of the field, the wild creatures of the plain, all the craftsmen - all these I made to go aboard ... A black cloud rose from the horizon ...  For a whole day the South Storm blew, gathering speed as it blew, drowning the mountains, overcoming the people as in battle. Brother saw not brother. From heaven no mortal could any longer be seen. Even the gods were struck by terror at the deluge ...  For six days and seven nights the flood wind blew as the South Storm swept the land. At sunrise in the seventh day the South Storm, bringer of the flood, and which had fought like an army, abated its attack. The sea grew quieter, the storm subsided, the flood ceased. I looked at the weather; It had gone quiet. All men had returned to clay. The land had been levelled like a terrace ...  There emerged a mountain peak for that point. The boat came to rest on Mount Nisir...  When the seventh day dawned, I brought a dove out and set it free. The dove went forth but then returned. The dove found no resting-place and turned back. I brought out a swallow and set it free. The swallow went forth but then returned.  The swallow found no resting-place and turned back. I brought out a raven and set it free. The raven flew forth but saw the waters were sinking, she ate, circled, croaked, but did not return back ... Then I sent forth all the four winds and offered a sacrifice. On the peak of the mountain I poured out a libation. Twice seven were the cult-vessels I set up, heaping upon their pot-stands sweet cane, Cedar, myrthle, the gods smelled the savour. The gods gathered like fliers around the sacrificer ... Now when Inanna, the Lady of the Gods, arrived ... Just as surely as I shall not forget the lapis lazuli around my neck, so shall I remember these days, never forgetting them ... Now when Enlil arrived and saw the boat ... 'What! - Has any mortal escaped?'...  Enki opened his mouth to speak, saying to valiant Enlil: 'O wisest of gods, O great warrior hero, how could you, taking no counsel, bring on the deluge? He who has sinned, on him lay his sin. He who has transgressed, on him lay his transgression, but oh be merciful, lest all be destroyed. Be long suffering, that man may not perish ...
Ziusudra says to him Says to Gilgamesh: 'Gilgamesh ... I will disclose unto you a hidden thing. Yes, a secret of the gods will I tell unto you: There is a plant, its thorn is like the buckthorn, its thorns will prick your hands as does the rose. If that plant shall come to your hands you will find new life' ...  No sooner had Gilgamesh heard this than he opened the water-pipe. He tied heavy stones on his feet in the manner of the pearl divers. They pulled him down into the deep. There he saw the plant. He took the plant, though it pricked his hands ...  Gilgamesh saw a well whose water was cool. He descended into it to bathe in the water. A serpent smelled the fragrance of the plant. It darted up from the well and seized the plant: Sloughing its skin in rejuvenation as it returned. Then Gilgamesh sat down and wept. His tears flowed down his cheeks...
The Epic of Gilgamesh (by Robert Temple)
Wikipedia, Epic of Gilgamesh
Livius, The Great Flood, Epic of Gilgamesh, tablet XI

Adapa

He [Adapa] possessed intelligence ... His command like the command of Anu ... He [the god Ea] granted him a wide ear to reveal the destiny of the land, He granted him wisdom, but he did not grant him eternal life...He [Ea] garbed him, and gave him counsel saying: " Adapa, before the face of Anu the King thou art to go ... to heaven ... When thou standest before Anu Food of death they will set before thee, eat not. Water of death they will set before thee, drink not...
... What can we do with him? Food of life Bring him, that he may eat." Food of life they brought him, but he ate not. Water of life they brought him, but he drank not ...
Ancient History Encyclopedia, The Myth of Adapa
Wikipedia, Adapa

Enuma Elish

When in the height heaven was not named, and the earth beneath did not yet bear a name, and the primeval Apsû, who begat them, and chaos, Tiamat, the mother of them both,— their waters were mingled together, and no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen; When of the gods none had been called into being, and none bore a name, and no destinies [were ordained]; then were created the gods in the midst of [heaven] ...
.... When Marduk heard the word of the gods, His heart prompted him and he devised [a cunning plan]. He opened his mouth and unto Ea [he spake], [That which] he had conceived in his heart he imparted [unto him]: "My blood will I take and bone will I [fashion], "I will make man, that man may ... [...]. "I will create man who shall inhabit [the earth] ... that the service of the gods may be established, and that [their] shrines [may be built] ... 
Internet Sacred Texts Archive, The Seven Tablets of Creation
Wikipedia, Enuma Elish

sunnuntai 4. tammikuuta 2015

[HT] Savesta astiaksi

Useissa Mesopotamian alueelta löydetyissä nuolenpääkirjoituksissa puhutaan ihmisen luomisesta ja tarkoituksesta.

Atrahasis-eepoksessa ihmisen luomisen syyksi esitetään pikkujumalien työn helpottaminen. Pikkujumalilla on kova työ kanavien, Eufratin ja Tigriksen kaivamisessa ym. ja ne valittavat tästä. Ea-jumala ehdottaa, että luodaan ihminen tekemään työt.  Ihmisen valmistamiseen käytetään Enki-jumalan toimittamaa savea johon sekoitetaan yhden surmattavan jumalan liha ja  veri.
They slaughtered Aw-ilu, who had the inspiration, in their assembly.
Nintu mixed clay with his flesh and blood.
That same god and man were thoroughly mixed in the clay.
For the rest of the time they would hear the drum.
From the flesh of the god the spirit remained.
It would make the living know its sign.
Enki ja Ninmah-kertomuksesssa on samantapainen juoni näiltä osin. Jumalten piti tehdä töitä, vain korkeimmat Jumalat olivat vapaat raadannasta. Lopulta pikkujumalat kokoontuivat valituksineen Enki-jumalan luo, joka vain lekotteli kaiket päivät. Enki kuunteli valituksia ja teki suunnitelman. Hän päättää, että  haetaan 'Abzun' savea ihmisten muovaamiseksi ja pyytää äitiään Nammaa yhdessä Ninmahin kanssa auttamaan niiden elämään saattamisessa. Kertomuksessa kuvataan sitäkin, kuinka syntyy eri tavalla vammaisia ihmisiä, ja Enki keksii silti heille tehtäviä.

Enūma Eliš-kertomuksessa kerrotaan myös ihmisen luomisesta
When Marduk heard the word of the gods,
His heart prompted him and he devised a cunning plan.
He opened his mouth and unto Ea he spake
That which he had conceived in his heart he imparted unto him:
My blood will I take and bone will I fashion
I will make man, that man may
I will create man who shall inhabit the earth,
That the service of the gods may be established, and that their shrines may be built
Toisessa käännösehdotuksessa ihmisen luomisen tarkoitus näyttää olevan sama kuin kahdessa ensimmäisessä kertomuksessa, että jumalat saisivat levätä.
When Marduk heard the gods' speech
He conceived a desire to accomplish clever things.
He opened his mouth addressing Ea,
He counsels that which he had pondered in his heart,
I will bring together blood to form bone,
I will bring into being Lullû, whose name shall be 'man'.
I will create Lullû—man
On whom the toil of the gods will be laid that they may rest.
Raamatussa ihmisen luomisen tarkoitus ilmaistaan yksinkertaisen kauniisti:
Ja Jumala sanoi: "Tehkäämme ihminen kuvaksemme, kaltaiseksemme..."
Raamattussakin mainitaan Jumalan lepääminen. Ihmistä ei kuitenkaan luotu vapauttamaan Jumala työnteosta kuten ainakin kahdessa ensimmäisessä em. tekstissä, vaan Jumalan lepo rinnastuu työn jälkeen tulevaan sapatinlepoon.

Ihmisen 'ainesosista' Raamattu kertoo:
Silloin Herra Jumala teki maan tomusta ihmisen ja puhalsi hänen sieramiinsa elämän hengen, ja niin ihmisestä tuli elävä sielu.
Maan tomuahan me olemme, niinkuin jo sumerilaiset ymmärsivät, mutta tarvitaan myös jotain muuta, elämän henki.

Tuo maan tomu tai savi on tärkeä teema Raamatussa ja siitä puhutaan useassa muussakin kohdassa.
Sana, joka tuli Jeremialle Herralta ja kuului: "Nouse ja mene alas savenvalajan huoneeseen; siellä minä annan sinun kuulla sanani". Niin minä menin alas savenvalajan huoneeseen, ja katso, hän teki työtä pyöränsä ääressä. Ja jos astia, jota hän valmisti, meni pilalle, niinkuin savi voi mennä savenvalajan käsissä, niin hän teki siitä taas toisen astian, miten vain savenvalaja näki parhaaksi tehdä. Silloin tuli minulle tämä Herran sana: "Enkö minä voi tehdä teille, te Israelin heimo, niinkuin tekee tuo savenvalaja, sanoo Herra. Katso, niinkuin savi on savenvalajan kädessä, niin te olette minun kädessäni, te Israelin heimo.  (Jer. 18:1-6)
Mutta olethan sinä, Herra, meidän isämme; me olemme savi, ja sinä olet meidän valajamme, kaikki me olemme sinun kättesi tekoa.  (Jes.64:8)
Myös Uudessa Testamentissa puhutaan meistä saviastioina, joissa Jumalan Henki asuu.

Jos tarkastelemme muiden vanhojen kirjoitusten ja Raamatun alkulukujen yhtäläisyyksiä kielteisestä näkökulmasta, voimme erehtyä ajattelemaan, että Raamattu 'vain' toistaa vanhoja kertomuksia tms., mutta eihän se niin ole. Raamatussa sellainenkin aines, joka  on osittain vanhempaa perua,  on puhdistettu ja jalostettu osaksi yhtenäistä kokonaisuutta, joka kertoo meille jotain tärkeää.

"The Bible is not a preserved relic from the past. It is a living word."
Reinhard Bonnke.


Lähteitä:

Atrahasis-eepoksen käännös
Wikipedia, Atrahasis
Enki ja Ninmah -käännös
World Mythology, Enki and Ninmah
Enūma Eliš-käännös